East-West Church & Ministry Report
Vol. 1, No. 3, Summer 1993, Covering the Former Soviet Union and East Central Europe

Practically Speaking

Fellowship Travel International of Richmond, VA, provides a free, 32-page missions guide entitled How to Begin, Establish & Maintain Russian Ministries.  This invaluable publication contains a wealth of practical advice found nowhere else.  For example, the discussion of baggage, cargo, and humanitarian shipments (pp. 14-15, 19-20) not only treats a complicated subject sensibly, but outlines procedures for obtaining free shipping of aid containers to Russia and other Soviet successor states.  Relief agencies and denominations already have shipped over 2,000 aid containers to the former Soviet Union through the Fund for Democracy and Development.  (See following announcement.)  To request a copy of the missions guide contact:

The Washington-based Fund for Democracy and Development has the endorsement of Richard Nixon, Walter Mondale, Zbigniew Brzezinski, Alexander Haig, and Orrin Hatch.  The Fund "provides guidance, financial and logistics support for the transportation of food, medicines, medical supplies, and limited quantities of other goods...to the people of the Commonwealth of Independent States."  Between 24 February 1992, when the United Methodist Committee on Relief dispatched the first shipment, and mid-May 1993, the Fund delivered 2,088 containers with a retail value of over $100 million to 126 locations in eleven new states of the former Soviet Union.  To date, over 400 different United States, Canadian, and European communities, representing over 300 humanitarian and civic organizations, churches, and individuals have donated over 26,000 metric tons of mainly private source humanitarian aid.  The Fund projects summer 1993 shipments of 250 containers (mostly 40 feet long, some 20 feet) per month.  For guidelines and application forms contact:

Compassion in Action
In the summer of 1992, Bishop John C. Favalora of the Catholic Diocese of St. Petersburg, FL, appealed to his parishes for foodstuffs for the needy of their namesake city, St. Petersburg, Russia. Church families who responded to the call packed boxes with 40 pounds of non-perishable items such as canned meat, tuna fish, flour, sugar, shortening, and candy for children. The 60 tons of food, which filled three of the Fund's 40-foot long containers, left Florida in September and arrived in Russia's second largest city in mid-November 1992. U.S.-born Father Januarius Izzo, a Franciscan priest assigned to St. Petersburg's only functioning Roman Catholic Church, and the Catholic relief agency Caritas distributed the food boxes without regard to religion, giving young children and nursing mothers priority.

Source: Call to Action, A Newsletter of the Fund for Democracy and Development, no. 6, 20 November 1992, 2-3.

Fund Container Shipments (February 1992-April 1993)
Other Republics
Source:  Fund for Democracy and Development, May 1, 1993.

Software in Cyrillic

Doug Smith, computer services manager for Slavic Gospel Association, Wheaton, IL, offers advice on computer technology

The Cyrillic alphabet used for Russian and other Slavic languages presents some unusual challenges in computer technology. MS-DOS-based machines dominate the Russian personal computer market. IBM and IBM compatibles account for 95 percent of the market.

In contrast to the standard, Roman alphabet keyboards in the West, no consensus exists for  the layout of Cyrillic character computer (or typewriter) keyboards. Imagine sitting down in front of a Russian computer knowing that the letters and numbers may be arranged in twenty different ways. In addition, IBM compatible programs do not guarantee that text files can be shared with other users, a further complication for computer users.

Most methods of processing Russian under MS-DOS necessitate Cyrillic support (or an add-on) for each program. For example, word processing requires only one Cyrillic add-on, but each database and each desktop publishing software must have a separate add-on. In addition, each Cyrillic program must be key layout compatible with others programs. Difficulties may arise when one converts a word processing document into a different software program. In particular, the text conversion process often sacrifices format codes (page numbers, footnotes, and line spacing) and text attributes (bold, italics, and fonts). However, some manufacturers advertise Cyrillic font software packages that avoid this conversion loss. (For further information, contact companies listed below.)

If computer users need just word processing, either IBM compatible or Macintosh will work fine. Some add-on packages work exclusively with certain printers, while others claim one add-on will support laser, ink jet, and dot matrix printers.  In addition, some add-on packages offer font sets which include Cyrillic characters for Belorussian, Macedonian, and Serbian (Bulgarian only needs the Russian set). Thus, computer users working with Slavic languages need to keep all these points in mind when choosing add-on packages.

Running Windows on IBM compatibles improves matters. The Cyrillic characters can be loaded into Windows and then can be made available to all Windows programs. However, MS-DOS programs will not work with this method. In addition, most IBM compatibles in the former Soviet Union are not powerful enough to run Windows.

Macintosh computers, on the other hand, install Cyrillic characters at the system level. Once installed, all Macintosh programs will easily work with Cyrillic. The data from these programs are interchangeable. Apple offers the Macintosh operating system in Russian (and many other languages), so the whole computer can run in Russian if desired. Many Macintosh software programs can take on additional Russian features, such as sorting in Russian alphabet order.

Non-English speaking persons find the Macintosh graphical interface far easier to use than IBM compatibles. Although Windows offers a graphical interface, much of the character interface must be dealt with. A variety of Macintosh add-on programs will work in Cyrillic, including automatic hyphenation, spell check, and conversion between files in various key layouts, even from MS-DOS computers.

Ministries needing Cyrillic fonts should seriously consider Macintosh hardware and software. IBM compatible users point out that Macintosh computers generally cost more. However, Mac users argue that time saved with Macintosh hardware and software easily pays for the difference in initial cost. Also, keep in mind that the runner-up IBM compatible program, Windows, requires a good deal of electrical power. Users can program IBM compatibles running only MS-DOS to accommodate Russian. On the other hand, if time matters, Macintosh may make the most sense. 



Telephone Codes for Capitals and Cities of More Than One Million in East Central Europe and the Former USSR

(Soviet successor states use 7 as a country code unless otherwise noted. Capitals are in italics and former Communist names are in parentheses.)

ALBANIA 355--Tirana 42 
BOSNIA 38--Sarajevo 71 
BULGARIA 359--Sofia
CROATIA 38--Zagreb 41 
HUNGARY 36--Budapest
MACEDONIA 38--Skopje 91 
POLAND 48--Warsaw 22 
ROMANIA 40--Bucharest
SERBIA (YUGOSLAVIA) 38--Belgrade 11 
SLOVAKIA 42--Bratislava
SLOVENIA 061--Ljubjana 612 

Moscow 095 
Chelyabinsk 351 
Kazan 8432 
Nizhni Novgorod (Gorki) 8312 
Novosibirsk 3832 
Omsk  38122 
Perm 3422 
Rostov-On-Don 8632 
Samara (Kuibyshev) 8462 
St. Petersburg (Leningrad) 812 
Ufa 3472 
Yekaterinburg (Sverdlovsk) 343

ARMENIA--Yerevan 8852 
AZERBAIJAN--Baku 8922 
BELORUS--Minsk 0172 
ESTONIA 372--Tallinn
GEORGIA--Tbilisi 8832 
KAZAKHSTAN 73--Alma Ata 3272 
KYRGYZSTAN--Bishkek (Frunze) 3312 
LATVIA 371--Riga
LITHUANIA 370--Vilnius
MOLDOVA 377--Chisinau (Kishinev) 2 
TAJIKISTAN--Dushanbe 3722 
TURKMENISTAN--Ashkabad 363 
UZBEKISTAN--Tashkent 3712 

Kiev 044 
Donetsk 0622 
Dnepropetrovsk 0562 
Kharkiv 0572 
Odessa 048 
Zaporozhye 0612

Source for additional city codes in the former Soviet Union: Where in St. Petersburg (Montpelier, VT: Russian Information Services, 1992), 40; source for city populations: Statesman's Yearbook (New York: St. Martin's Press, 1992).

All About English
Susan Griffith

Editor's note: excerpted with permission from Teaching English Abroad (1991): 172-73. Peterson's Guides, Dept. 2342, 202 Carnegie Center, Box 2123, Princeton, NJ 08543-2123. $13.95. Tel: 1-800-338-3282; Tel. in NJ and outside the U.S.: 609-243-9111. Fax: 609-243-9150. The "Eastern Europe" chapter (pp. 172-91) concentrates on Hungary, Czechoslovakia, Poland, and Bulgaria.

English language teaching in the countries of Eastern Europe is in a state of flux....Political change has provoked a linguistic revolution. Countries which once taught Russian as the first foreign language have committed themselves in principle to a great expansion of English teaching, and there is a tremendous need for native English speakers. Demand is greatest in Hungary, Poland, and Czechoslovakia, though all the countries of Eastern Europe...have opportunities in both state schools and emerging private language schools.  Russian is out; English is in.

The local educational systems simply cannot produce enough local teachers of English for state schools. The best local teachers are very often drawn into private sector teaching where salaries are much greater, or go into banking or tourism. In all the countries of the region there are acute shortages of teachers, as training establishments cannot produce new teachers and retrain ex-Russian teachers to meet the demands of all their schools. Hence many state schools will welcome teachers, especially volunteers with little or no experience for conversation classes to supplement grammar taught by local school staff....

Those with qualifications and experience are obviously in the best position, though anyone with native-speaker status and the desire to experience life in this rapidly changing part of the world should find few problems....[See Counterpoint.] There is a burgeoning demand for volunteer teachers, including opportunities for shorter teaching stays of 1-3 months. Although the pay will be minimal, help with accommodation is usually given.

 Ministries of Education and national educational establishments in the countries of Eastern Europe are...trying to attract qualified and experienced teachers. The very low pay offered, however, makes these jobs only marginally better than volunteer work....While opportunities vary from place to place and while the future is uncertain due to the speed of change, it is true to say that there will be a great demand for native EFL [English as a Foreign Language] teachers for many years ahead. 

No! No! And no! This is the biggest misconception in EFL. Just because one speaks English does not mean s/he can teach it. It is my opinion that anyone coming to teach English in Eastern Europe/CIS needs some training--minimum though it be.


English Language Teaching Opportunities

Name, address, phone, and fax Countries/ 
to date or  
Conservative Baptist 
Foreign Mission Society 
Rev. Glenn Kendall, Personnel Dir. 
Box 5 
Wheaton, IL 60189-0005 
Tel: 708-665-1200; fax: 708-665-1418
certificate; 1 year 
teaching experience 
BA or BS
1 year $700/month 
plus airfare & health 
6 months $700/month plus 
airfare & health insurance
Educational Services International (ESI) 
Mr. Andy Berwick, Dir. of Recruitment 
1641 W. Main St., #401 
Elhambra, CA 91801 
Tel: 818-284-7955; fax: 818-570-9721
BA or BS summer/$2800 
includes transp. 
12 mo./$2900 
does not include transp.
Free Methodist World Missions 
Volunteers In Service Abroad (VISA) 
Dr. John Gilmore, Dir. of Personnel & VISA 
Box 535002, Indianapolis, IN 46253-5002 
Tel: 317-244-3660; fax: 317-244-1247
HU/7 BA or BS 
teacher certification
12 mo./travel & 
(Positions salaried) 
Greater Europe Mission Eurocorps 
Mr. Lowell Benson, Asst. Personnel Dir. 
Box 688, Wheaton, IL 60189 
Tel: 708-462-8050; fax: 708-462-8059
high school diploma 9 wk/$2995
International Teams (IT) 
Mr. Glenn Schuman, Director, 
Placement and Counseling Advisor 
Box 203, Prospect Heights, IL 60070 
Tel: 800-323-0428; fax: 708-870-3399
high school diploma 2 yrs./$1,000- 
Masaryk Fellowship Program 
Mr. Eric Nonacs, Program Coordinator 
1270 Avenue of the Americas, #609 
New York, NY 10020 
Tel: 212-332-2890 
Fax: mail inquiries preferred
CZ, SL/275  3 yrs. of college; 
TESL training preferred; 
teaching or tutoring 
experience required
1 mo. (July or August)/ 
small stipend provided; 
participants must pay their 
own way to & from Prague 
Mission to Unreached Peoples (MUP) 
Ms. LeAnne Kion, Recruiter 
Box 45880, Seattle, WA 98145-0880 
Tel: 206-524-4600; fax: 206-524-6992
ECE, CIS/10-12 
BA or BS preferred; 
TESL training 
OMS International 
Mr. Roy Kane, CoMission Coordinator 
Box A, Greenwood, IN 46142 
Tel: 800-932-7758; 317-881-6751 
Fax: 317-888-5275
HU/20 BA or BS; - 
OMS sponsored 
TESL training
1 year
Operation Mobilization (OM) 
Mr.Keith Haywood, Personnel Director 
Box 444, Tyrone, GA 30290-0444 
Tel: 404-631-0432; fax: 404-631-0439
English BA preferred; 
10 weeks TESL training
2 years
Peace Corp 
Recruiting Assistant 
1990 K St. NW, Washington, DC 20526 
Tel: 800-424-8580 Ext. 2293
ECE, CIS/100 BA or BS (96% of 
applicants); TESL training 
and ESL experience 
and MA preferred
27 mo./All expenses paid; 
$5400 provided at end of 
program. Living allowance, 
travel, medical, and 
dental insurance provided 
Southern Baptist Foreign Mission Board 
Ms. Betty Cutchins, Sec., International Service Dept. 
Box 6767, Richmond, VA 23230 
Tel: 804-353-0151; fax: 804-358-0504
BA or BS preferred; 
"minimal" TESL training
4 mo.-2 yrs./travel and cost 
of living paid by Board 
AL--Albania; BU--Bulgaria; CIS--Commonwealth of Independent States; CZ--Czech Republic; ECE--East Central Europe; HU--Hungary; LA--Latvia; PO--Poland; RO--Romania; RU--Russia; SL--Slovakia; UK--Ukraine; YU--former Yugoslavia

Practically Speaking, East-West Church & Ministry Report, 1 (Summer 1993), 13-16.

Written permission is required for reprinting or electronic distribution of any portion of the East-West Church & Ministry Report.

1993 East-West Church and Ministry Report
ISSN 1069-5664

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